Welcome to the Atrix Forum - Motorola Atrix Forum.

Register ButtonIf this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed.

[FAQ] "What is LTE?" A few things explained, a few things cleared up!!!

This is a discussion on [FAQ] "What is LTE?" A few things explained, a few things cleared up!!! within the Motorola Atrix FAQ forums, part of the Motorola Atrix Support Forum category; The is a rough draft. I will try to put as much useful information in here as possible. I will also call upon members of ...

Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 14
Like Tree6Likes

Thread: [FAQ] "What is LTE?" A few things explained, a few things cleared up!!!

  1. #1
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    7308
    Join Date
    Sep 2011
    Location
    Louisville, KY
    Posts
    835
    Liked
    231 times

    [FAQ] "What is LTE?" A few things explained, a few things cleared up!!!

    The is a rough draft. I will try to put as much useful information in here as possible. I will also call upon members of the community to add anything useful that I might have overlooked. I will also try to this as user friendly as possible.

    So, got that new phone rockin LTE capability? How's that blazing fast tablet marketed as a 4G LTE device? Let me let you in on a little secret: As far as standards are concerned, it's not really 4G. LTE Advanced will be the first TRUE 4G standard. However, it is not quite fully developed to start rolling out to cell phone companies across the world. Hopefully the information in this post will be able to help those of you who don't quite understand the differences become enlightened.

    **Please sticky if it becomes sticky worthy, otherwise, let it fade away in the air like that feather from Forrest Gump!!**

    I am not an expert on mobile technologies. I know enough to understand how it works. I enjoy following the industry to an extent, and try to keep up with it as it is interesting to me. If something on here is incorrect, inaccurate, or could easily be disputed, please send me a PM so that I can research into said mistake and correct it.


    LTE – Long Term Evolution

    LTE (not to be confused with LTE Advanced) is technically a 3G technology. While it is currently being marketed as a 4G technology by carriers in the US, LTE Release 8 does not satisfy the requirements set forth by the ITU-R (International Trade Union Radiocommunications Sector) for a 4G technology. I could list all the requirements, but in reality, without a working knowledge of wireless technology, some of it is hard to swallow.

    So who invented LTE?

    LTE is trademarked by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is being developed under the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, or 3GPP. ETSI is one of the associations within the 3GPP.

    Improvements in modulation (the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted) techniques have allowed more data to go to a user device than was ever thought imaginable. This improvement in technology makes better use of frequencies and the addition of MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennas and radios allowing higher user capacities per cell (I do not know if this means per antenna/basestation or per cell site). To give you a better idea, in older cellular networks, there was one antenna connected to one cable that went from the top of the tower to the base into a basestation. There is another antenna sitting next to it, seperated by X feet with it’s own cable running down to the base into the basestation. One antenna was used to send information. The other antenna was used to receive information. Typically, voice calls. In some setups, there can be one large antenna, with four connections going in to it. You effectively have one antenna that can do the work of four antennas. This can do many things, including cutting the cost of an antenna or reduce the wind load on a cell tower. With newer technologies, one antenna can does the same thing. This can work to a carrier’s benefit in two ways. They can decrease cost per site with only having one antenna in place of two (though I doubt this is the case, as they still have to run two sets of cable per antenna) or they can have two antennas like before, with the proper channel spacing to make sure they don’t interfere with each other. This gets them more customers per cell site with more bandwidth per customers.

    **The last bit is mostly conjecture, but fundamentally, wireless is wireless. The concepts I use in the industry I work in still very much apply to the concepts cell companies use, with consideration to many other aspects that I don’t think is necessary to get in to.**

    Unfortunately for carriers, the LTE standard only supports packet switching (data networking). So carriers wishing to implement LTE, also need to reconfigure their voice network to exist with LTE. While LTE supports many different frequencies, in the United States 700Mhz (LTE) and 1700Mhz (AWS band 4) are planned to be used. T-Mobile uses the 1700Mhz AWS Band 1 for their HSPA+ network. If you read about the wireless industry in the United States, you will find that there are lots of articles written about 700Mhz. Between the major carriers in the US, and privately owned companies that own 700Mhz spectrum, there isn’t really enough to go around. You will find that Verizon might lease spectrum in one area, so that the company it’s leasing from can use Verizon's 700Mhz spectrum in another area. Essentially, they trade areas that are more profitable for their markets. I use Verizon as an example because they were the first in the United States to setup a fully functional LTE network and have customers using it. And with that, there is a fair amount of press about it.

    So let’s get in to some technical jargon that most folks won’t understand. I will try to make it as readable as possible, mostly I am just going to try and highlight what it means for the customers, the people who will be using the technology. To give an example, here is what Verizon says are the advantages of LTE:

    1. Higher Data Rates – Customers will see anywhere from 5-12Mbps on their download, and 2-5Mbps on their upload. That currently is almost 4X faster than current 3G networks. To give an example, I was doing work in a very low population area. My phone with AT&T’s HSPA network did 4Mbps down. Good luck getting that in a densely populated area.

    2. Better Multipath, Mobility and Power Performance – Multipath refers to the path that the signal takes to your device. Basically, it bounces off stuff better. I kid you not. The signal does not necessarily have to take a direct path from the cell site to your device. It can first bounce off a metal building here and a concrete building there. If it is a material like metal, it can bounce right off that metal to your device. While the same concept applies for concrete buildings, concrete tends to absorb RF more than it reflects it. LTE uses OFDM (Orthagonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access), the same technology used in your LinkSys wireless router and MIMO antennas. This helps in the elimination of multiple user interference (your buddy Joe sitting next to you streaming that movie on his phone killing your signal).

    3. Latency – Using OFDM is one of the contributing factors of significantly reduced latency. The WiMAX protocol itself has up to a 35ms built in latency. OFDM (the same modulation technique used in 802.11) allows for less latency from the basestation to the connected device.

    4. Simultaneous User Support – More or less, more people can be using their devices at the same time. Yeah, sounds pretty simple, but getting multiple users in the same time slot was not a simple feat.


    Those are just a few of the benefits of LTE in Verizon’s eyes. Here are a few more off of the 3GPP’s website:

    1. Very Low Latency – So, when doing that neat speed test over your phone and you’re like OMG 180ms to the test server, when done over an LTE network, assuming conditions like signal strength, network congestion and the proper alignment of the stars, you can see ping times not only in the sub 100ms mark, but as low as 75ms to the server (based on my tests with my Motorola Xoom on Verizon).
    2. Support of Variable (channel) Bandwidth – The basestations can run in 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20Mhz channel sizes. This is important because it allows different carriers, running different channel sizes based on spectrum they own to choose how much data can be pushed through each basestation. The higher the channel size, the more bandwidth they can push through it. (That is the best I can explain it without confusing everyone, but it is a positive thing!!)
    3. Compatibility and inter-working with earlier 3GPP releases – Pretty self-explanatory, backwards compatibility is the goal.

    So…LTE isn’t really 4G? Well, why not? And why is EVERYTHING advertised as 4G?

    But, LTE, as deployed here in the US (and around the world, as far as I am aware) is still a 3G technology. So why then, are they allowed to call what we have in place 4G? On December 6, 2010 the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in a press release stated:
    “As the most advanced technologies currently defined for global wireless mobile broadband communications, IMT-Advanced is considered as “4G”, although it is recognized that this term, while undefined, may also be applied to the forerunners of these technologies, LTE and WiMax, and to other evolved 3G technologies providing a substantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial third generation systems now deployed.

    I am of the opinion that they caved to worldwide commercial pressure, as many companies have already started marketing phones as 4G devices, though technically, none of them conform to the standard. How did that work out for us in America? Well, everyone thinks they are buying a 4G phone, which just means it is faster, running on an HSPA+ network for AT&T and T-Mobile, or WiMax for Sprint users and now, LTE Rev.8 for Verizon users. But technically, the standard does not yet exist. As of 3/1/2012, I have not heard of the ITU or the 3GPP announce LTE-Advanced official standard. However, I have been living in a dark cave for the last few weeks, so I could have missed it.

    So what differences can we expect to see from LTE-Advanced?

    Here are some things that are requirements for the IMT-Advanced standard:

    1. All-Internet Protocol Packetswitched Network – The network is more or less, one large GIANT wireless LAN. I may be oversimplifying it. Voice calls will no longer be circuit switched, but will likely use a protocol like SIP. SIP is the same protocol used for VoIP services over internet, commonly marketed as Digital Phone Service (VoIP earned a nasty reputation when it first hit public use).
    2. Interoperability with existing wireless standards – Backwards compatibility. Nothing wrong with that. I am sure there will be many areas that are still on the EDGE network when LTE-Advanced hits the general population, though I could be mistaken.
    3. A nominal data rate of 100Mbps for moving devices, 1Gbps while the client and station are relatively fixed – It’s supposed to be FREAKING FAST!!!!! I would say over 90% of the population in America could not afford a 1Gbps internet connection to their home. It costs thousands per month. On the low side maybe nothing cheaper than $1,000/mo in some locations if you are lucky. Until Google finishes their fiber build out in Kansas City, KS and Kansas City, MO it isn’t affordable in most cases.
    4. Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks with smooth handovers – At this point, most phones that are designed to specification will be able to operate on any carrier around the world. And when you switch from basestation to basestation, and carrier to carrier, ideally, the change will be relatively unnoticed.
    5. Ability to offer high quality of service for multimedia support – Issues with VTC, VoIP and other services like Skype for example should operate without issue. You could, in theory hook your X-Box up to a mobile broadband router, and play your favorite video games over your carrier as your drive down the road. This is of coarse under the assumption that you are not driving. Any other thought should otherwise be filed in the “I just proved how stupid I am” category.

    So from the five examples of the many more (they are all really technical, and I don’t even recognize some of the acronyms) benefits and improvements to how our life could be changed when this revolutionary technology hits the mainstream!

  2. #2
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    7308
    Join Date
    Sep 2011
    Location
    Louisville, KY
    Posts
    835
    Liked
    231 times
    Saved! In case I need it for some reason!

  3. #3
    Super Moderator/RS
    Member #
    7
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Florida Panhandle
    Posts
    11,157
    Twitter
    @das8nt
    Liked
    1281 times
    Awesome job, froggie!

    I, for one, won't be making any correction suggestions, 'cuz that's way more than I already thought I knew.

    Sent from my Unlocked/Rooted/Stock Moto Atrix using Tapatalk

    AtrixForums.com : My Anti-Drug : Above the iNfluence

  4. #4
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    7366
    Join Date
    Sep 2011
    Posts
    807
    Liked
    193 times
    Great work yet again, froggie! Thanks for the contribution... all that information is actually pretty interesting!

  5. #5
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    7308
    Join Date
    Sep 2011
    Location
    Louisville, KY
    Posts
    835
    Liked
    231 times
    Quote Originally Posted by das8nt View Post
    Awesome job, froggie!

    I, for one, won't be making any correction suggestions, 'cuz that's way more than I already thought I knew.

    Sent from my Unlocked/Rooted/Stock Moto Atrix using Tapatalk
    I intend to get more in there, but that right there should be enough to answer some simple questions. The hardest part about presenting it to the average Joe is deciding between what is important and what is not. But what I have now, should answer most questions, and then some!

    Quote Originally Posted by cogeary View Post
    Great work yet again, froggie! Thanks for the contribution... all that information is actually pretty interesting!
    Not a problem. I was talking to UltraDroid earlier telling him I must have been born to be a researcher or data harvester. I like doing this stuff.

  6. #6
    Senior Member
    Member #
    3545
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Texas
    Posts
    773
    Liked
    154 times
    Thanks..... I've only skimmed it so far, but I'll for sure be reading it.

  7. #7
    Super Moderator
    Member #
    1002
    Join Date
    Mar 2011
    Location
    Cleveland, Ohio - The North Coast!
    Posts
    18,231
    Liked
    2018 times
    Excellent stuff Froggie! Thanks for posting it.
    GSM Galaxy Note 3 (Black) - Straight Stock
    GSM Galaxy Note 2 (Titanium) - Rooted running Jedi X20 Rom
    GSM Galaxy Nexus (Black) - Straight Stock

    GSM Samsung Galaxy S3 (Red) - Rooted running Deadly Venom v8.0.1 Rom






  8. #8
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    649
    Join Date
    Mar 2011
    Location
    The great state of America!
    Posts
    4,697
    Liked
    423 times
    Thanks for adding to the knowledge!!

    Sent from my MB860 using Tapatalk
    - Sam

    I have much experience with unlocked bootloaders and custom ROMs on the original ATRIX. I will do my best to hold your hand through any problem, small or large, on any phone. Please open up a thread in the help section (or Rescue Squad section if your phone is in dire need) or PM me. I don't bite

  9. #9
    Rescue Squad
    Member #
    133
    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Location
    Laramie, Wyoming
    Posts
    1,894
    Liked
    486 times
    Greenie - This is a KILLER write-up d00d! Awesome way to contribute to the forum! Thank you for taking the time to do this, it must have taken MANY hours of research... You rock man!

    If you need help, and I appear to be offline, shoot me a msg on Gtalk, or PM me and I'll respond as soon as I possibly can!!

  10. #10
    Member
    Member #
    8824
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
    Posts
    62
    Liked
    5 times
    Thanks for posting this! It was an interesting and informative read.

    Sent from my MB860 using Tapatalk


 
Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast

Remove Ads

Ads

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  

Similar Threads

  1. "Background data" vs. "Data Roaming" vs. "Data enabled"
    By moseley in forum Motorola Atrix FAQ
    Replies: 12
    Last Post: 03-07-2012, 03:17 PM
  2. Iphone does these things better, please help
    By malevinson in forum Atrix 2 Support
    Replies: 8
    Last Post: 01-03-2012, 07:16 PM
  3. Replies: 0
    Last Post: 06-06-2011, 06:35 PM
  4. Just the little things.
    By VonWolven in forum Motorola Atrix General Discussion
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 04-23-2011, 09:45 AM
  5. have to go tho the setup things?
    By cik2003ny in forum Motorola Atrix General Discussion
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 02-27-2011, 10:35 PM

Search tags for this page

100mbps broadband louisville

,

a few things explained devices

,

lte release explained

,

what is lte-a

Click on a term to search for related topics.